Contribution to the development of tools and methods of competences management
For years, the debate on competence has continued to grow. The theme is central to the extent that it questions the business performance. Although the importance of competence management has been recognized, existing approaches in this area have revealed methodological deficits; the operating range of the competence concept has often been limited and researchers have often been helpless when faced with requests from companies that want to engage in this approach. It is in this context that this research aimed to contribute to this field by developing tools and operational methods for efficient competence management. We propose a formalization of the concept of competence available in three levels: individual, collective and organizational. We contribute to the modeling of generic competence model and we choose the model on which we rely in this work. Firstly, we propose a competence identification methodology based on functional analysis to identify requisite individual competencies. This allows us to design and update the competence framework in response to changing work situations. Secondly, we present a comprehensive approach on "Wheel competencies" supporting the competence management based on the technique of continuous improvement that makes the necessary adjustments and helps to build a more coherent reference model and better suited to the organization. This approach is structured into five phases: initialization, planning, integration and deployment, evaluation and development. Competence identification is an inevitable stage upon which depend the decisions of competence management. These two approaches can work in complementary. They provide support to managers and decision makers to better manage the recruitment, training, and mobility in order to meet the competencies requirements of enterprises and to pay special attention to their needs of critical competencies. Various empirical studies have been conducted in the enterprise in the course of this work. In an encouraging way, they confirm the consistency and relevance of the proposed approaches. They have, among others, allowed to test these approaches, but also to make recommendations for the development of a software tool for HR managers. This tool will support the identification of required competences and the update of the competence framework. However, further studies across the entire enterprise need to be done to ensure the greatest impact of all presented work. Finally, this work constitutes a platform for future research to test further the proposed approaches and test their applicability within other firms of other industrial sectors.
KEYWORDS: Competence ; required competence ; competence model ; competence framework ; competence management ; functional analysis ; systemic approach ; process approach