Alignement des systèmes d’information à base de progiciel, vers une ingénierie dirigée par les modèles centrée identification des risques
In the current context of fierce competition, the Information Systems of Small and Medium Enterprises are increasingly based on “off-the-shelf” products like the ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning - systems. As this kind of system offers a generic solution, the alignment between the company’s real needs and the ERP standard functionalities must be ensured. Therefore, we propose to define the so called Misalignment Risk (MR). Our literature review on project risk management leads us to propose two complementary strategies to manage the MR allowing its optimization: the first one works on the effect of the MR and the second one, on its occurrence. Our analysis of the model driven engineering methods, allowing the implementation of the first strategy, shows that: the alignment processes proposed to identify the misalignment, to evaluate its effect and to mitigate it are too macroscopic. Concerning the means to implement the second strategy, we highlight the weaknesses of the tools proposed to support the identification and treatment of the risk factors influencing the MR. We thus propose, firstly the “Model Driven - ERP Alignment” method allowing (i) the identification of the alignment and misalignment situations in a detailed manner and on the basis of the ISO 19440 norm, (ii) the evaluation of its effect and (iii) its association to adequate decisions. The granularity level and the interdependencies of the processes’ activities are also taken into account. Secondly we propose the “Risk-Factor Driven - ERP Alignment” approach. It consists in the proposition of a process allowing the identification and treatment of risk factors (RF) influencing the MR. to succeed in following tools are set up: RF variables, RF residual link matrix, RF life cycle classification and RF / management practices matrix. As this work is supported by both the Region Alsace and a SME located near Strasbourg, we follow an action / research approach. It allowed us to apply and validate our contributions.
KEYWORDS: ERP, alignment, ERP project, risk, risk management, risk factors